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Monte Cassino (today usually spelled Montecassino) is a rocky hill about kilometres (81 mi) southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, 2 kilometres (


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On 23 October , Pope Francis applied the norms of the motu proprio Ecclesia Catholica of Paul VI [1] to the abbey, removing from its jurisdiction all 53 parishes and reducing its spiritual jurisdiction to the abbey itself โ€” while retaining its status as a territorial abbey. It was sacked or destroyed a number of times. The Romans renamed the settlement Casinum and built a temple to Apollo at the citadel. The unique Beneventan script flourished there during Desiderius' abbacy. Martin of Tours in western Gaul by pagans angry at his attacks on their shrines: "By the time of Benedict, paganism was in a weaker condition in western Europe than it had been in Martin's time. Martin, however, was thrust out of his monastery into the role of a missionary bishop in the fourth century. The former territory of the Abbey, except the land on which the abbey church and monastery sit, was transferred to the diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo. And like conquering Israel, Benedict came precisely to carry out this purification. As Naples is situated on the crossroad of many seaways of Europe, Middle East and Asia, soon the monastery library was one of the richest in Europe. The community of monks resided first at Teano and then from at Capua before the monastery was rebuilt in During the period of exile, the Cluniac Reforms were introduced into the community. Pope Gregory also relays that the monks found a pagan idol of bronze when digging at the site which when thrown into the kitchen gave the illusion of a fire until dispelled by Benedict. It was the Volsci who first built a citadel on the summit of Monte Cassino. In the monastery was sacked by Saracens and abandoned again. It maintained good relations with the Eastern Church , even receiving patronage from Byzantine emperors. Lacking strong defences the area was subject to barbarian attack and became abandoned and neglected with only a few struggling inhabitants holding out. Modern excavations have found no remains of the temple, but ruins of an amphitheatre, a theatre, and a mausoleum indicate the lasting presence the Romans had there. Benedict's prayers are portrayed as the driving force behind the building of the abbey and the triumphs over Satan, through prayer: "Benedict the monk wrests from the devil a well-determined base which he never leaves. There was an ancient temple there in which Apollo used to be worshipped according to the old pagan rite by the foolish local farmers. And, of course, it must be remembered that Martin as a bishop was a much more prominent churchman than Benedict. All the knowledge of the civilizations of all the times and nations was accumulated in the Abbey of that time. Archaeologist Neil Christie notes that it was common in such hagiographies for the protagonist to encounter areas of strong paganism. While scholars see some similarities between the story of Benedict's encountering demonic phenomena and diabolic apparitions at Monte Cassino with the story of Saint Anthony the Great 's temptation in the desert, the influence of the story of St. It was rebuilt after the war. John where the altar of Apollo had stood. From this, we can infer a fairly small community. During this period the monastery's chronicle was written by two of its own, Cardinal Leo of Ostia and Peter the Deacon who also compiled the cartulary. Then it rises three miles above it as if its peak tended toward heaven. Martin is dominant โ€” with the resistance of Satan substituting for Martin's outraged pagan populace. Its prominent site has always made it an object of strategic importance. After the reforms of the Second Vatican Council the monastery was one of the few remaining territorial abbeys within the Catholic Church. Once established at Monte Cassino, Benedict never left. No doubt Gregory had this biblical model uppermost in his mind, as is clear from the terms he uses to describe the work of destruction. The first one which Benedict built in the temple itself was only twelve meters long and eight wide. Benedict mandated the moral obligations to care for the sick. It was directly subject to the pope and many monasteries in Italy were under its authority. The abbey was dissolved by the Italian government in The building became a national monument with the monks as custodians of its treasures. Monks caring for the patients in Monte Cassino constantly needed new medical knowledge. So in Monte Cassino St. The number of monks rose to over two hundred, and the library, the manuscripts produced in the scriptorium and the school of manuscript illuminators became famous throughout the West. Where Satan concealed himself behind underlings at Subiaco, at Monte Cassino he drops the masks to enter into a desperate attempt to prevent an abbey from being built, and "that the sole cause of this eruption of satanic action is the suppression of pagan worship on the high places. Benedict founded a hospital that is considered today to have been the first in Europe of the new era. By the th centuries Monte Cassino became the most famous cultural, educational, and medical center of Europe with great library in Medicine and other sciences.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} The Rule of St. The mountain shelters this citadel on a broad bench. He then reused the temple, dedicating it to Saint Martin , and built another chapel on the site of the altar dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. According to accounts, "Benedict died in the oratory of St. In Saracens sacked and then burned it down, [10] and Abbot Bertharius was killed during the attack. In one story, Satan invisibly sits on a rock making it too heavy to remove until Benedict drives him off. And he summoned the people of the district to the faith by his unceasing preaching. It acquired a large secular territory around Monte Cassino, the so-called Terra Sancti Benedicti "Land of Saint Benedict" , which it heavily fortified with castles. The Volsci in the area were defeated by the Romans in B. He built a chapel dedicated to St. In his earlier setting Benedict "had twice shown complete mastery over his aggressiveness, Benedict is now allowed to use it without restraint in the service of God. At the same time, neither Gregory nor Benedict could have forgotten the similar line of action taken by St. In the abbey was placed in commendam and in was made subject to the Abbey of Santa Giustina in Padua. He wrote the Benedictine Rule that became the founding principle for Western monasticism , received a visit from Totila , king of the Ostrogoths perhaps in , the only remotely secure historical date for Benedict , and died there. A flourishing period of Monte Cassino followed its re-establishment in by Abbot Petronax , when among the monks were Carloman , son of Charles Martel ; Ratchis , predecessor of the great Lombard Duke and King Aistulf ; and Paul the Deacon , the historian of the Lombards. The second oratory, on the mountain-top, where the pagan altar had stood in the open air, was of the same width but somewhat longer Monte Cassino became a model for future developments. Pope Gregory I's biography of Benedict claims that Satan opposed the monks repurposing the site. He contrasts this with the year struggle faced by St. Of the first monastery almost nothing is known. Generations after the Roman Empire adopted Christianity the town became the seat of a bishopric in the fifth century A. Martin, and was buried in the oratory of St. Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict at Monte Cassino is seen by scholars as the final setting for an epic set in motion at Subiaco. The buildings were destroyed by an earthquake in , and in Pope Urban V demanded a contribution from all Benedictine monasteries to fund the rebuilding. In , a donation of Gisulf II of Benevento created the Terra Sancti Benedicti , the secular lands of the abbacy, which were subject to the abbot and nobody else save the Pope. The 11th and 12th centuries were the abbey's golden age. Around it had grown up a grove dedicated to demon worship, where even at that time a wild crowd still devoted themselves to unholy sacrifices. The Benedictines translated into Latin and transcribed precious manuscripts. According to Gregory the Great's biography of Benedict , Life of Saint Benedict of Nursia , the monastery was constructed on an older pagan site, a temple of Apollo that crowned the hill. Thus, the monastery became the capital of a state comprising a compact and strategic region between the Lombard principality of Benevento and the Byzantine city-states of the coast Naples , Gaeta , and Amalfi. Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict's construction was confirmed by archaeological discoveries made after the destruction of Martin and of St. John the Baptist, with additions from the eighth and eleventh centuries, together with their pre-Christian cellars. Among the great historians who worked at the monastery, in this period there is Erchempert , whose Historia Langobardorum Beneventanorum is a fundamental chronicle of the ninth-century Mezzogiorno. This was an isolated and unusual episode in Benedict's monastic career. Monks reading and copying the medical texts learnt a lot about human anatomy and methods of treatment, and then put their theoretic skills into practice at monastery hospital. Martin in the temple of Apollo and another to St. Martin against the pagan shrines of Gaul. Monte Cassino was rebuilt and reached the apex of its fame in the 11th century under the abbot Desiderius abbot โ€” , who later became Pope Victor III. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Site of the Roman town of Casinum , it is best known for its abbey, the first house of the Benedictine Order , having been established by Benedict of Nursia himself around The first monastery on Monte Cassino was sacked by the invading Lombards around and abandoned. By the 13th century, the monastery's decline had set in. It encouraged fine art and craftsmanship by employing Byzantine and even Saracen artisans. The care of the sick was such an important duty that those caring for them were enjoined to act as if they served Christ directly. The biography records that the area was still largely pagan at the time; Benedict's first act was to smash the sculpture of Apollo and destroy the altar. When [Benedict] the man of God arrived, he smashed the idol, overturned the altar and cut down the grove of trees. The history of Monte Cassino is linked to the nearby town of Cassino which was first settled in the fifth century B. The monastic routine called for hard work. Now the citadel called Casinum is located on the side of a high mountain. Soon many monasteries were founded throughout Europe, and everywhere there were hospitals like those in Monte Cassino. In another story, Satan taunts Benedict and then collapses a wall on a young monk, who is brought back to life by Benedict. Benedictine monks took care of the sick and wounded there according to Benedict's Rule. Unlike the stories that may have influenced Pope Gregory's structure of the biography, Benedict's victories are practical, preventing Satan from stopping work on the abbey at Monte Cassino. Benedict's violence against a pagan holy place recalls both Martin's assault against pagan shrines generations before and the Biblical story of conquering Israel entering the Holy Land see Exodus De Vogue writes "this mountain had to be conquered from an idolatrous people and purified from its devilish horrors.